Both inertia and momentum are related to motion and because motion is not what it appears to be, that is the movement of a body from one location to another, a preparatory explanation is required.
Although the heading of this sub-section might appear to be another of Wheeler’s profound paradoxes, it isn’t, at least as far as I know, however, as is the case with most profound paradoxes, it involves a deliberate obfuscation of the meanings of the words of which it is comprised. Let me explain.
It will be recalled that the processes of fluctuation and accumulation discussed so far all involve very tiny, very short-lived toroidinos and accumulations of these cells. We have variously called ‘intensifications of energy’, ‘regions of fluctuating toroidinos’ and so on, but will now refer to them as ‘dynamic patterns’.
While the notion of dynamic patterns goes some way to answering the question of what it is that persists, sometimes for extremely long periods when compared with the life of the toroidinos, the problem still exists of what it is that appears to move over great distances compared with not only the size of the toroidinos but with the size of the dynamic patterns into which the toroidinos form.
The project now is to explain how it is that these toroidinos and dynamic patterns are apparently able to move. I say ‘apparently’ because it is the changes in the positions of the dynamic patterns that provide the appearance of motion, not the constituents of the patterns. I am suggesting that the constituents of the patterns do not change their location, hence my expression ‘motion without movement’.
The acceptance of this part of my hypothesis depends on the acceptance of the proposal that every object that exists and that we are able to perceive in any way is actually a dynamic pattern of space. Obviously there is more to the explanation of what objects are than this, but we will leave the more comprehensive explanation to later.
If we accept that everything is a dynamic pattern, it follows that all motion we perceive must be the motion of a dynamic pattern. In the context of this claim I will try to explain how the dynamic patterns can appear to have motion when the constituents of the patterns, the fluctuating toroidinos, do not. It should be apparent that the toroidinos, being intrinsic, would not be able to move from their point of origin without tearing the contiguous space, which would result in there being a gap in space in which there was ‘nothing’, a state of affairs that we have argued is not possible, therefore no movement of individual cells through space is possible. It may seem contradictory to say that the toroidinos cannot move through space yet the dynamic patterns, which are comprised of toroidinos, can move. However it is not contradictory because the patterns don’t actually move either, they only appear to have motion. How could that be?
Motion on your monitor
A very common form of motion without movement is the apparent motion of the images of objects on a television screen or computer monitor. For example, right now I can move the cursor across the screen of my computer monitor in any direction over a very wide range of speeds, for all the world as though it was some demented blow-fly, but all that is ‘moving’ is the mouse in my hand and, because it is an optical mouse, there is not even a ball or wheel to move. The motions of the mouse are converted into electronic signals that are used to place the cursor—itself fluctuating into and out of existence at a high frequency—on the screen at the Cartesian coordinates on the screen, so many pixels from the bottom (or top) and so many pixels from the side. Also, because it is an LCD monitor, there is not even a beam of electrons to move as there would have been in the earlier vacuum tube monitor.
The images on a flat or LCD television screen, even complex, fast moving, many coloured images, of a motorcycle race say, ‘move’ in the same way as the cursor on my computer monitor, that is, they don’t move at all, their motion is apparent. These are good examples of the apparent motion of patterns without actual movement and they are analogous to real life ‘motion’.
Returning to the toroidinos of fluctuating energy, we know that these toroidinos are very short-lived and cannot move through space, so it can only be something that is happening to the dynamic pattern into which the toroidinos form that gives the appearance of motion. Also, as I pointed out earlier, it is not the same toroidino that fluctuates from the mean to a higher intensity, back to a lower intensity and then to a higher intensity again; each time there is a fluctuation away from the mean intensity of space it is a new toroidino. Nevertheless, because the toroidinos are so small and so short-lived it may appear that activity at a particular location is the same toroidino repeating over and over. A similar impression is created by the image of a pulsing light on an LCD monitor, each time the light appears it is a new activation of the pixels of liquid crystals that constitute the image, although it appears to be the same light pulsing because it is using the pixels at the same Cartesian co-ordinates on the screen. The same applies to the rapidly fluctuating mouse cursor. In the same way, although each fluctuation of space is a new toroidino, because they are so small and happening with such rapidity, it will be highly probable that there will be a series of new fluctuating toroidinos in the same location in what is, certainly to our senses, an extremely short period. Now that we have established that it is possible, indeed common, that apparent motion is possible without movement, which is fine for images on a screen, we will explain how the effect is analogous for objects—patterns—that obviously do change their physical location.
Motion of real objects
Consider that every object is a dynamic pattern comprised of dynamic patterns at many scales down to the toroidinos at the Planck scale. The dynamic patterns are constantly being formed according to the ontological principle, the mechanism of which is gravity, which causes the toroidinos to cluster into concentrations and embryonic dynamic patterns.
As shown in the figure of The World, these patterns are further organised according to the ontological principle into nodes and modes of nodes that we know as electrons and quarks and then protons and neutrons up to the atoms which form the elements that comprise the periodic table, which is itself evidence of a persevering pattern. Generally, at each larger scale the patterns become more persistent, although this is not always the case.
The point of running through this build-up to actual elements is to bring to the front of the reader’s mind that all objects are comprised of toroidinos in dynamic patterns. In short, all objects are events and the ontology of the world is an event ontology or process.
When a ‘massive’ object is caused to ‘move’, the apparent motion is the motion of the dynamic pattern. I have tried to represent this process in the figure at the bottom of the page. Please note that in the following explanation, the changes in the ratios of the cells in which the rates of expansion and contraction predominate, are greatly exaggerated. Only small changes in the ratios would be needed to create the curvature and subsequent effects that we have hypothesised. In all cases of the ratios the value for the contracting phase is shown on the left side of the ratio symbol ‘:’ and the value for the expanding phase on the right side.
The figure explained
In the figure at the bottom of the page, the ratio symbols below each position of the ball indicate the application of the ontological principle in the following way:
(a) the dynamic pattern of toroidinos that comprise the ball is at rest with a 1 : 1 ratio between the toroidinos in which the contracting phase predominates, and the toroidinos in which the expanding phase predominates.
(b) because the ‘force’ of the pushing hand adds energy to the that side of the ball it creates an energy gradient and the a ratio of 2 : 1 between the toroidinos in which the contracting phase predominates, and the toroidinos in which the expanding phase predominates, with the result that the ball is contracting away from the energy source. Simultaneously, on the other side of the ball the ratio between the toroidinos in which the contracting phase predominates, and the toroidinos in which the expanding phase predominates, is in favour of the expanding phase, 1 : 2, so the events cells will ‘grow’ away from the point at which the force is applied.
(c) an increased push increases the ratio to 3:1 in favour of the predominately contracting phase and, on the other side of the ball, 1 : 3 in favour of the predominately expanding phase, so the ball accelerates even faster.
(d) the push has been removed and the ratios at 2: 1 and 1 : 2 are becoming more balanced so the ball decelerates until (e).
(e) the ratios are just enough to balance any retarding forces at, say 1.5 : 1 and 1 : 1.5, in which case the ball will continue in a state of constant motion.
(f) further retardation erodes the ratio in favour of the contracting phase until it again equal to the expanding phase and, once they are balanced at 1 : 1, the ball becomes stationary again.
The sense of motion is created by the locations of the new toroidinos progressively ‘lighting up’ along the energy gradient just as the pixels of liquid crystal on the monitor progressively ‘light up’ as the image of the motorcycle moves.
Of course acceptance of this explanation leads to the expectation that the ball will appear to be distorted away from the force and towards the direction of motion. Rolling a balloon partially filled with water will create this sort of expected distortion, however, because the growth happens at very small scales, the physical changes at the scales of the toroidinos are well beyond the threshold of our perception. An example of something else which, compared with the toroidinos is huge and long lasting, is a normal incandescent light bulb and its ‘steady’ light. Because the electrical supply is a sine-wave of 50 Hz, when the light bulb is switched ‘ON’ the light is actually going off and back on 100 times a second, but the effect we perceive is of a steady light.
I will elaborate on the effects of this ‘motion’ in the sections on inertia and momentum to follow later on.
A sub- but extremely important -category, of motion without movement is that of the motion of light, which we will investigate in the next section before moving on to ‘force without force’.
- The processes of fluctuation involve very tiny, very short-lived toroidinos and accumulations of these cells, which we will now refer to as ‘dynamic patterns’.
- It is the changes in the positions of the dynamic patterns that provide the appearance of motion, not the constituents of the patterns.
- If we accept that everything is a dynamic pattern, it follows that all motion we perceive must be the motion of a dynamic pattern.
- The patterns don’t actually move either, they only appear to have motion.
- The images on a flat or LCD television screen, even complex, fast moving, many coloured images ‘move’ in the same way as the cursor on a computer monitor, that is, they don’t move at all, their motion is apparent.
- Remember that all objects are events and the ontology of the world is an event ontology or process.
- The changing ratios between the contracting phase and the expanding phase is what determine whether the ball accelerates, has constant motion, decelerates or remains stationary.
- The sense of motion is created by the locations of the new toroidinos progressively ‘lighting up’ along the energy gradient.